The first half of the 14th century marked the initial phase of a period in which medieval Bosnia reached its peak of development. Shortly after coming to power, Bosnian Ban Stjepan II managed to expand the state borders to the region of Krajina between the Cetina and Neretva rivers, and in the western parts, the border was extended to the areas of Livno, Duvno, and Glamočfields, no later than spring 1326. The most significant expansion of his state occurred in a conflict, that lasted from April to June 1326, with the Hum nobility of the Branivojević family, who held power over Hum at that time. Events from this conflict are not extensively documented, and today they are known through several decisions of the Ragusan authorities, the chronicles of Mavro Orbin and Jakov Lukarević, and partially through the charters of Ban Stjepan II. In this conflict, the Bosnian Ban formed an alliance with Ragusa, and the Branivojević nobility was completely defeated and displaced in a relatively short period. The established rule in the conquered areas had a long-term character, and these territories became an integral part of the Bosnian state. Alongside the annexation of territories and new economic flows, a new religious element – Orthodoxy – entered the framework of the Bosnian Banate. The fate of the institutional elements of the Orthodox and Catholic churches in the conquered territory is evidenced by the expulsion of the bishops of Makarska and Duvno, as well as the bishop of Zahumlje.

Through his military campaigns, Stjepan II, for the first time in history, secured access to the sea for the Bosnian state, thereby bringing the land closer to the Mediterranean world. According to the charter issued by Ban Stjepan II to Prince Grgur Stjepanić in 1329/1330, the Bosnian ruler had authority over the territory from the Sava River to the Adriatic Sea and from the Drina River to the Cetina River. Soon after, information about Ban’s campaign against the Serbian state in the Polimlje region is drawn from a source dated 1329. The presence and strong authority of the Bosnian ruler are also attested by a charter from 1333, confirming Ragusa’s possession of Ston and Pelješac. By consolidating power within the country and achieving significant territorial expansions, Stjepan II provided adequate conditions for the further development of his land in the economic, and urbanization segments.

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